ICCE 2022

How to Cite

40 YEARS OF FLEXIBLE SCOUR APRONS: ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC COAST CASE HISTORIES. (2023). Coastal Engineering Proceedings, 37, papers.67. https://doi.org/10.9753/icce.v37.papers.67


Flexible scour apron mats are sometimes used where seawalls are ‘floating’ in the beach, where firm rock foundations are out of economic reach. This paper reviews the use of flexible scour aprons for the toe protection of seawalls and revetments, based on some 20 to 40 years exposure at sites in NSW, Australia and in Cubut, Argentina. It contains examples of simple and compound revetments, and discusses the problems of design variations driven by cost cutting, and the risks of post-design and post- construction policy changes that critically affect the original design concepts, especially where reliance had been placed on concurrent beach nourishment, and apron elevation had been raised to take the benefit of increased protection offered by the beach nourishment.


PPSK (1974) Cost Estimate for a Reclamation at Port Kemble, Report to NSW PWD.

PPSK (1975) Balmoral Beach Seawall Report (CTB:gc:1417),

Foster, Higgs (1975) Model Studies of Balmoral Seawall, Water Research Laboratory (WRL) Report


PPSK (1976) Balmoral Beach Assessment of Condition of Existing Seawall Report

Foster, Brown (1977) Balmoral Beach Seawall, 3rd Australian Conference on Coastal &Ocean

Engineering (ACCOE), Melbourne

Foster, Brown (1978) Protection to Prince Street, North Cronulla by beach nourishment Uni. of N.S.W.,

WRL Tech. Report 78/1, January 1978.

Brown (1979), Gabion Report. WRLReport No 156 (Unpublished MEngSc Thesis, Uni. of NSW)

Brown (1979) Design Report, Gabion Revetments at Galvin Park & Towradgi (Tillotson Brown &

Partners, unpublished report to PWD)

Brown, Haradasa (1980 ) Proposals for the long-term protection of Prince Street and the improvement

of the amenity of North Cronulla Beach, Sydney: Water Research Laboratory

Brown Smith & Foster(1983) Design and use of rock filled mattresses for coastal protection Copedec

Si Lanka 1982

Brown (1984) Flexible Revetments, International Conference on Flexible Revetments. pp 1-12. ICE

Simons, Yung, Swenson,(1984) Design Criteria for the use of Reno Mattresses, Colorado State

University 1984

Welsby, Motyka (1984) Hydraulics Research, Report SR5 Volume 3: Gabions

Hirst; Foster (1987) The Design and Construction of Prince Street Seawall, Cronulla. Eighth Australian

Conference on Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Institution of Engineers, Australia, Launceston,

December 1987

d'Agremond, van den Berg (1992) Use of gabions in coastal protection Chapter 113, 23rd ICCE,


PWD (1988) Bondi Beach Seawall/Promenade Stability, NSW Department of Public Works. Report No

Pilarczyk (1990) Design of Seawalls and Dikes -Including Overview of Revetments, published in

Coastal Protection, ISBN 90 6191 1273, Balkema, Rotterdam.

J Walker (1996) Wave Runup on Seabee Revetments and Breakwaters MEngSc Thesis UNSW

Turner, Couriel (1997) Wamberal Beach terminal Protection structure -Physical Modelling Study.

Report No. UNSW Water Research Laboratory Technical Report No. 97/26

Klein Breteler, Pilarczyk, Stoutjesdijk (1998) Design of Alternative Revetments, in Coastal

Engineering, pp 1587 to 1600

Water Research Laboratory 1997, Wamberal Beach Terminal Revetment Protection Structure –

Physical Modelling Study, University of New South Wales Water Research Laboratory report prepared

by I.L. Turner & E.D. Couriel, Unisearch Ltd, WRL Technical Report 97/26

Water Research Laboratory 1998a, Design Study for Wamberal Beach Terminal Revetment Protection

Structure – Final Design Report, University of New South Wales Water Research Laboratory report

prepared by E.D. Couriel ,J.T.Carley, D.R Cox & C.A.Adamantidis, Unisearch Ltd, WRL Technical

Report 97/22 October

Water Research Laboratory 1998b, Wamberal Beach Terminal Revetment Protection Structure –

Technical Specification, University of New South Wales Water Research Laboratory report prepared

by E.D. Couriel, I.L. Turner & C.A.Adamantidis, Unisearch Ltd, WRL Technical Report 98/05 October

Water Research Laboratory (1998c) Informe 98/44 Estructura de Revestimento Para Rada Tilly

Van Senden 2003 Wamberal Beach and Property Protection Environmental Impact Report No.


Hughes, S. A. (2006). “Uses for marine mattresses in coastal engineering,” ERDC/CHL CHETN-III-72,

U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg. MS, http://chl.erdc.usace.army.mil/chetn

H Donini (2012) Defensa Costeras de Rada Tilly Chapter 2.3 in Recomendaciones en el diseño,

construcción y uso de las obras de abrigó de talud tendido – experiencias en la Provincia del Chubut.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2023 Chris Brown