## Abstract

Bed shear stresses generated by solitary waves were measured using a shear cell apparatus over a rough bed in laminar and transitional flow regimes (~7600 < Re < ~60200). Modeling of bed shear stress was carried out using analytical models employing convolution integration methods forced with the free stream velocity and three eddy viscosity models. The measured wave height to water depth (h/d) ratio varied between 0.13 and 0.65; maximum near- bed velocity varied between 0.16 and 0.47 m/s and the maximum total shear stress (sum of form drag and bed shear) varied between 0.565 and 3.29 Pa. Wave friction factors estimated from the bed shear stresses at the maximum bed shear stress using both maximum and instantaneous velocities showed that there is an increase in friction factors estimated using instantaneous velocities, for non-breaking waves. Maximum positive total stress was approximately 2.2 times larger than maximum negative total stress for non-breaking waves. Modeled and measured positive total stresses are well correlated using the convolution model with an eddy viscosity model analogous to steady flow conditions (nu_t=0.45u* z1; where nu_t is eddy viscosity, u* is shear velocity and z1 is the elevation parameter related to relative roughness). The bed shear stress leads the free stream fluid velocity by approximately 30° for non-breaking waves and by 48° for breaking waves, which is under-predicted by 27% by the convolution model with above mentioned eddy viscosity model.## References

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