## Abstract

Methods for designing submerged breakwaters are still being developed, particularly in respect of the 3D nature of wave-breakwater interaction. Many of the available design tools are inefficient as they are not able to provide any information on the spatial distribution of the wave field around breakwaters, and cannot therefore guarantee reliability and accuracy for the engineer. There is thus a need for an engineering design tool with the ability to model spatial variation of wave height. This paper proposes a method based on machine learning algorithms for predicting the nearshore wave field behind a submerged breakwater that includes both 2D and 3D effects. The proposed numerical model has been validated by various scales of laboratory data. Comparisons reveal the ability of the proposed model to predict the wave field around submerged breakwater.## References

Adams, C.B. and C.J. Sonu, 1986. Wave Transmission Across Submerged Near-Surface Breakwaters. In ASCE, pp. 1729-1738.

Bellotti, G., 2004. A simplified model of rip currents systems around discontinuous submerged barriers. Coastal Engineering, 51 (4), pp.323-335.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2004.04.001

Briganti R, J.W. Van der Meer, M. Buccino, M. Calabrese, 2003. Wave transmission behind low crested structures. Proc 3rd Coastal Structures Conference.

PMCid:1754567

Buccino M., D.I. Vicinanza, C.M. Caceres, 2009. 3D wave field behind impermeable low crested structures. Journal of Coastal Research, 56, pp.477-481.

Buccino, M and M. Calabrese, 2007. Conceptual approach for prediction of wave transmission at lowcrested breakwaters. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, 133(3), pp.213- 224.http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(2007)133:3(213)

Caceres I., M.J.F. Stive, A. Sanchez-Arcilla, L.H. Trung, 2008., Quantifcation of changes in current intensities induced by wave overtopping around low crested structures. Coastal Engineering, 55, p.113-124.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2007.09.003

d'Angremond K., J.W. Van der Meer, R.J. De Jong, 1996. Wave transmission at low-crested structures. Proceedings of the 22th International Conference on Coastal Engineering Orlando, FL, USA, pp.2418-2426.

Goda Y., and J.P. Ahrens, 2008. New formulation of wave transmission over and through low-crested structures. Proceedings of the 31st International Conference of Coastal Engineering, 4.

Goda, Y. and Y. Suzuki, 1976. Estimation of incident and reflected waves in random wave experiments. In Proc. 15th Int. Conf. on Coastal Engineering, ASCE. pp. 828-845.

Hagan, M.T., H.B. Demuth, M.H. Beale, 1996. Neural network design, PWS Pub.

Hanson, H. and N.C. Kraus, 1991. Numerical Simulation of Shoreline Change at Lorain, Ohio. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 117(1), pp.1-18.http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(1991)117:1(1)

Haykin, S., 1998. Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation by Simon Haykin (1998, Hardcover, Subsequent Edition): A Comprehensive Foundation, Prentice Hall.

PMid:9697135

Hur D.S., W.D. Lee. W.C. Cho, 2012. Three-dimensional flow characteristics around permeable submerged breakwaters with open inlet. Ocean Engineering, 44, pp.100-116.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2012.01.029

Johnson, H.K., T.V. Karambas, I. Avgeris, B. Zanuttigh, D. Gonzalez Marco, and I. Caceres, 2005. Modelling of waves and currents around submerged breakwaters. Journal of Coastal Engineering, 52, 949-969.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2005.09.011

Johnson, J.W., R.A. Fuchs, and J.R. Morison, 1951. The damping action of submerged breakwaters. Transactions, American Geophysical Union, Vol. 32, No. 5, 704-718.http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/TR032i005p00704

Kambekar A.R., and Deo M.C. 2003, Estimation of pile group scour using neural networks, Applied Ocean Research, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 25(4) 225-234.

Kramer, M., B. Zanuttigh, J.W van der Meer, C. Vidal, F.X. Gironella, 2005. Laboratory experiments on low-crested breakwaters. Coastal Engineering. 52, 867-885.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2005.09.002

Losada, I.J., R. Silva, M.A. Losada, 1996. 3-D non-breaking regular wave interaction with submerged breakwaters. Coastal Engineering, 28, pp.229-248.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3839(96)00019-1

Mase, H., M. Sakamoto, T. Sakai, 1995. Neural Network for Stability Analysis of Rubble-Mound Breakwaters. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 121(6), pp.294-299.http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(1995)121:6(294)

Medina, J.R., J.A., Gonzlez-Escriv, J.M.Garrido, J. De Rouck, 2002. Overtopping analysis using neural networks. Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, ASCE, pp. 2165-2177.

Medina, J.R., 1999. Neural network modelling of runup and overtopping. ASCE Proc Coastal Structures Santander, 1, p.421-429.

Panizzo, A, R. Briganti, 2007. Analysis of wave transmission behind low-crested breakwaters using neural networks. Coastal Engineering, 54(9), pp.643-656.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2007.01.001

Panizzo, A., R. Briganti, J.W. Van der Meer, L. Franco, 2003. Analysis of wave transmission behind low crested structures using neural networks, Proc. 4th Int. Coastal Structures Conference, Portland, Oregon.

Rumelhart, D.E., G.E. Hinton, R.J. Williams, 1986. Learning representations by back-propagating errors., 323(6088), pp.533-536.

Schlurmann, T., M. Bleck, and H. Oumeraci, 2002. Wave transformation at artificial reefs described by the Hilbert-Huang transformation. Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, 2, pp.1791-1803.

Seabrook, S.R., K.R. Hall, 1998. Wave transmission at submerged rubblemound breakwaters. Proceedings of the Coastal Engineering Conference, 2, pp.2000-2013.

van der Meer, J.W., R. Briganti, B. Zanuttigh, and B. Wang, 2005. Wave transmission at low-crested structures, including oblique wave attack. Journal of Coastal Engineering, 52, 915-929.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2005.09.005

van Gent, M.R.A., H.F.P. van den Boogaard, 1998. Neural network modelling of forces on vertical structures. Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering, 1(26). pp.2096- 2109.

Verhaeghe, H., J.D. Rouck and J. van der Meer, 2008, Combined classifier-quantifier model: A 2- phases neural model for prediction of wave overtopping at coastal structures, Coastal Engineering, Elsevier, 55 (2008) 357-374.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2007.12.002

Verhaeghe, H., 2005. Neural network prediction of wave overtopping at coastal structures. Ph.D. Thesis, Universiteit Gent, Gent, Belgium, ISBN 90-8578-018-7.

Vicinanza D., I. Caceres, M. Buccino, X. Gironella. and M. Calabrese, 2009. Wave disturbance behind low-crested structures: Diffraction and overtopping effects. Coastal Engineering, 56, pp.1173- 1185.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2009.08.002

Wamsley, T.V., J.P. Ahrens, 2003. Computation of Wave Transmission Coefficients at Detached Breakwaters for Shoreline Response Modeling. ASCE Conference Proceedings, 147(40733), p.49.

Werbos, P.J., 1988. Backpropagation: past and future. In Neural Networks, 1988., IEEE International Conference on. vol.1 pp. 343 -353.

Zanuttigh, B., L. Martinelli, 2008. Transmission of wave energy at permeable low crested structures.Coastal Engineering, 55(12), pp.1135-1147.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2008.05.005