AbstractOver the years, many physical and numerical modelling research has been carried out to investigate the wave-structure interactions and the resulting mean overtopping characteristics at sea defences. The most reliable empirical predication formulae for prediction of mean overtopping rates have been reported in the overtopping manual, EurOtop (2018). In addition to average overtopping rates, in recent years, the spatial distribution of overtopped water has become an important topic of research to understand the safe zone behind coastal defences. The existing empirical formulae for spatial distribution of overtopping provide conservative predictions, as it has been derived from the mean overtopping volumes. The extreme wave overtopping hazards in generally originate from individual overtopping events rather than the mean overtopping volumes. This study presents comprehensive laboratory investigations on the spatial distribution of wave-by-wave overtopping at vertical seawalls.
Abolfathi, Dong, Borzooei, Yeganeh-Bakhtiari, Pearson (2018):Application of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics in Evaluating the Performance of Coastal Retrofits Structures. In: Proceedings.of Coastal Engineering, 1(36). doi: https://doi.org/10.9753/icce.v36.papers.109.
Abolfathi, Pearson (2017): Application of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) in nearshore mixing: a comparison to laboratory data. Proc. Coast. Eng., https://doi.org/10.9753/icce.v35.currents.16.
Abolfathi, Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, Hamze-Ziabari, Borzooei: (2016): Wave runup prediction using M5′model tree algorithm. Ocean Engineering. Vol. 112, 76-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2015.12.016.
Andersen,Burcharth, Gironella (2009): Single wave overtopping volumes and their travel distance for rubble mound breakwaters. Coastal Structures, pp. 1241-1252.
Bruce, Pullen, Allsop, & Pearson (2005): How far back from a seawall is safe? Spatial distributions of wave overtopping. Proc. International Conference on Coastlines, Structures and Breakwaters, 2005. 166-176.
de Waal, Tönjes, and Van der Meer: (1997). Wave overtopping of vertical structures including wind effect. Coastal Engineering 1996.
Dong, Salauddin, Abolfathi, Tan, and Pearson (2018): The Influence of Geometrical Shape Changes on Wave Overtopping: a Laboratory and SPH Numerical Study. Coasts, Marine Structures and Breakwaters 2017, pp. 1217-1226. https://doi.org/10.1680/cmsb.63174.1217.
Dong and Pearson (2018): Laboratory Study of the Spatial Distribution of Extreme Overtopping Events at Vertical Structures. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2018. IOP Publishing, 012013.
Dong, Abolfathi, Salauddin, Tan, Pearson (2020): Enhancing Climate Resilience of Vertical Seawall with Retrofitting - A Physical Modelling Study. Applied Ocean Research, 103,102331 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2020.102331.
EurOtop (2018): Manual on wave overtopping of sea defences and related structures. Second Edition. www.overtopping-manual.com.
Fitri, Hashim, Abolfathi, Nizam Abdul Maulud (2019): Dynamics of sediment transport and erosion-deposition patterns in the locality of a detached low-crested breakwater on a cohesive coast.Water, 11 (8). 1721. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081721.
Franco, De Gerloni and Van der Meer (1995): Wave overtopping on vertical and composite breakwaters. Coastal Engineering 1994.
Peng and Zou (2011): Spatial distribution of wave overtopping water behind coastal structures. Coastal Engineering, 58, 489-498.
Pullen, Allsop, Bruce (2006): Wave overtopping at vertical seawalls: field and laboratory measurements of spatial distributions. Coastal Engineering 2006: (In 5 Volumes). World Scientific.
Pullen, Allsop, Bruce, & Pearson (2009): Field and laboratory measurements of mean overtopping discharges and spatial distributions at vertical seawalls. Coastal Engineering, 56(2), 121-140.
Salauddin and Pearson (2019): Wave overtopping and toe scouring at a plain vertical seawall with shingle foreshore: A Physical model study. Ocean Engineering 171, 286-299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.11.011
Salauddin and Pearson (2020): Laboratory investigation of overtopping at a sloping structure with permeable shingle foreshore. Ocean Engineering, 197 (1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2019.106866
Salauddin, O’Sullivan, Abolfathi, Pearson (2020): Extreme Wave Overtopping at Ecologically Modified Sea Defences. EGU General Assembly, 6162. https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-6162.
Ward, Zhang, Wibner, Cinotto (1996): Wind effects on runup and overtopping of coastal structures. Coastal Engineering 1996.
Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, Houshangi, Abolfathi (2020): Lagrangian two-phase flow modeling of scour in front of vertical breakwater. Coastal Engineering Journal, 62:2, 252-266,https://doi.org/10.1080/21664250.2020.1747140
Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, Houshangi, Hajivalie, Abolfathi (2017): A numerical study on hydrodynamics of standing waves in front of caisson breakwaters with WCSPH model. Coastal Engineering Journal. 59:1, 1750005-1-1750005-31, DOI: 10.1142/S0578563417500