AbstractInter-annual variability of wave climates is important for coastal risk assessment because these fluctuations can increase or decrease seasonal erosion risk (Wahl and Plant 2015). Understanding how long-term variability affects the seasonality of sediment transport is an important challenge in risk assessments (Toimil et al. 2020). There have been many attempts to quantify long-term variability in offshore wave climate, as this is the primary driver of coastal processes on sandy coasts. However, there is very little work on how the long-term variability of wave climate influences sediment transport. One of the most important drivers of sediment transport is the mean wave direction of incoming waves (Barnard et al. 2015; Hemer, Church, and Hunter 2010; Morim et al. 2019), although it is still not fully understood. An important contribution in this regard is the work of (Barnard et al. 2015), who found that El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dominates coastal vulnerability in the Pacific Ocean. On the other hand, several works at global scale (Godoi and Torres Junior 2020; Reguero, Losada, and Mendez 2019; Stopa and Cheung 2014) have found that ENSO is the climatic driver that most affects the interannual variability of the wave climate. However, understanding how ENSO impacts wave direction is still lacking.
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