AbstractAppropriate evacuation strategies play an important role in saving lives during tsunamis. Evacuation by vehicle is generally not recommended, as it would induce severe congestion on roads. Nevertheless, it could be helpful for vulnerable people (e.g. the disabled, elderly, or infants) who live in an area which a tsunami would reach immediately after an earthquake, and cannot walk fast. Despite this, to date there are few simulation tools that can accurately reproduce the evacuation behavior of both pedestrians and vehicles as well as the tsunami inundation process. To help disaster risk managers with this problem, the authors newly developed an agent-based tsunami evacuation model that can consider both tsunami wave hydrodynamics and the behavior of both of these types of agents (i.e. vehicles and people) during evacuation.
Recorded Presentation from the vICCE (YouTube Link): https://youtu.be/ZurujpEE0hY
Cox, R. J., Shand, T. D., and Blacka, M. J. 2010. “Australian rainfall and runoff revision projects project 10: Appropriate safety criteria for people.” Available at http://arr.ga.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/40578/ARR_Project_10_Stage1_report_Final.pdf. (accessed 6th April 2019)
Central Disaster Management Council (CDMC). 2012. “Working Group Report on Mega-Thrust Earthquake Models for the Nankai Trough, Japan” Available at http://www.bousai.go.jp/jishin/nankai/nankaitrough_info.html. (accessed 7th March 2019)
Central Disaster Management Council (CDMC). 2016. “Data used for modeling the Earthquake along the Japan Trench and Kurilland Trench” Available at http://www.bousai.go.jp/jishin/nankai/model/data_teikyou.html. (accessed 7th March 2019)
Central Disaster Management Council (CDMC). 2016. “Data used for modeling the Mega-Thrus Nankai Trough Earthquake” Available at http://www.bousai.go.jp/jishin/nankai/model/data_teikyou.html. (accessed 7th March 2019)
Dijkstra, E. W. 1959. “A Note on Two Problems in Connection with Graphs.” Numerical Mathematik, 1:269–271.
Goto, Y., Mikami, T., and Nakabayashi, I. 2012. “Fact-Finding about the evacuation from the unex- pectedly large tsunami of March 11, 2011 in East Japan.” Proc. 15th World Conf. Earthquake Engineering, Paper No. 5140.
Goto, C., Ogawa, Y., Shuto, N., and Imamura, F. 1997. “IUGG/IOC Time Project Numerical method of tsunami simulation with the Leap-Frog scheme.” IOC Manuals and Guides, UNESCO, Paris, France.
Harnantyari, A. S. ,Takabatake, T., Esteban, M., Valenzuela, P., Nishida, Y., Shibayama, T., Achiari, H., Rusli, Marzuki, A. G., Marzuki, G. F. H., and Aránguiz, R., Kyaw, T. O. 2020. “Tsunami awareness and evacuation behaviour during the 2018 Sulawesi Earthquake tsunami.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 43:101389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101389
Jacob, S., Aguilar, L., Wijerathne, L., Hori, M., Ichimura, T., and Tanaka, S. 2014. “Agent based modeling and simulation of tsunami triggered mass evacuation considering changes of environment due to earthquake and inundation.” Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. A2 (Applied Mechanics (AM)), 70(2), I_671-I_680. https://doi.org/10.2208/jscejam.70.I_671
Kumagai, K. 2014. “Validation of tsunami evacuation simulation to evacuation activity from the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake tsunami.” Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. D3 (Infrastructure Planning and Management), 70(5), 187–196. (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.2208/jscejipm.70.I_187
Makinoshima, F., Imamura, F., and Abe, Y. 2015. “Development of tsunami evacuation simulation considering ped-car interaction-validation in the 2011 evacuation event at Kesennuma city-,” Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. B2 (Coastal Engineering), 71(2), 1645–1650. (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.2208/kaigan.71.I_1645
Makinoshima, F., Imamura, F., and Abe, Y. 2016. “Behavior from tsunami recorded in the multimedia sources at Kesennuma City in the 2011 Tohoku tsunami and its simulation by using the evacuation model with pedestrian - car interaction.” Coastal Engineering Journal, 58(4):1640023 (28 pages). https://doi.org/10.1142/S0578563416400234
Mas, E., Suppasri, A., Imamura, F., and Koshimura, S. 2012. “Agent-based Simulation of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake/Tsunami Evacuation: An Integrated Model of Tsunami Inundation and Evacuation.” Journal of Natural Disaster Science, 34(1), 41–57. https://doi.org/10.2328/jnds.34.41
Nagai, R., Takabatake, T., Esteban, M., Ishii, H., and Shibayama, T. 2019. “Tsunami Risk Hazard in Tokyo Bay: The Challenge of Future Sea Level Rise” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Accepted. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101321
NHK 2013. “Remembering 3.11 Great East Japan Earthquake Archive” Available at http://www9.nhk.or.jp/archives/311shogen/en/ (Accessed 20 April 2019)
Shibayama, T., Ohira, K., and Takabatake, T. 2013. “Present and future tsunami and storm surge protections in Tokyo and Sagami Bays.” Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC 2013), 764–766.
Takabatake, T., Esteban, M., Nistor, I., Shibayama, T., and Nishizaki, S. 2020. “Effectiveness of hard and soft tsunami countermeasures on loss of life under different population scenarios.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 45, 101491. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101491
Takabatake, T., Fujisawa, K., Esteban, M., and Shibayama, T. 2020. “Simulated effectiveness of a car evacuation from a tsunami.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 47, 101532. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101532
Takabatake, T., Nistor, I., and St-Germain, P. 2020. “Tsunami evacuation simulation for the District of Tofino, Vancouver Island, Canada.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 48, 101573. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101573
Takabatake, T., Shibayama, T., Esteban, M., Achiari, H., Nurismanc, N., Gelfi, M., Tariganc,T. A., Kencanac, E. R., Fauzic, M. A. R, Panalaranc, S., Harnantyaria, A.S., and Kyaw, T. O. 2019. “Field survey and evacuation behaviour during the 2018 Sunda Strait Tsunami.” Coastal Engineering Journal, 61(4), 423–443. https://doi.org/10.1080/21664250.2019.1647963
Takabatake, T., Shibayama, T., Esteban, M., and Ishii, H. 2018. “Advanced casualty estimation based on tsunami evacuation intended behavior: case study at Yuigahama Beach, Kamakura, Japan.” Natural Hazards, 92(3), 1763-1788. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-018-3277-0.
Takabatake, T., Shibayama, T., Esteban, M., Ishii, H., and Hamano, G. 2017. “Simulated tsunami evacuation behavior of local residents and visitors in Kamakura, Japan.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 23, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.04.003
Takabatake, T., St-Germain, P., Nistor, I., Stolle, J., and Shibayama, T. 2019. “Numerical modelling of coastal inundation from Cascadia Subduction Zone tsunamis and implications for coastal communities on western Vancouver Island, Canada.” Natural Hazards, 98, 267–291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-019-03614-3
Treiber, M, Hennecke, A., and Helbing, D. 2000. “Congested traffic states in empirical observations and microscopic simulations.” Physical Review E, 62, 1805-1824. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.62.1805.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.