AbstractSeawall constructions are one of the main ways of protecting coasts against tsunamis. The estimation of tsunami loading on a structure is important for evaluating the fragility of seawalls. In this study, hydraulic flume tests were conducted to investigate the characteristics of tsunami loading when tsunamis flow over seawalls. Correlations between the loading on seawalls and the specific energy of the flow are investigated. A method for evaluating the maximum tsunami loading on the seawall is proposed. The approach can evaluate the maximum tsunami loading, even when tsunamis flow over seawalls.
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