How to Cite

Laknath, D., Josiah, N., Sewwandi, K., & Araki, S. (2020). SIMULATION OF 2004 TSUNAMI INUNDATION IN GALLE CITY IN SRI LANKA AND REVISIT THE PRESENT EVACUATION MEASURES. Coastal Engineering Proceedings, (36v), papers.36.


Tsunami inundation was successfully reproduced for the Galle City, Sri Lanka using Delft3D-Flow model and Delft Dashboard Tsunami Tool. Previously identified tsunami hazard maps agreed with the simulation results. Existing tsunami early warning system and preparedness for evacuation are in a favourable condition. Based on the outcome of numerical simulation and field investigations, suitable horizontal evacuation measures were proposed, and vertical evacuation points were suggested primarily considering the identified hazardous zones with lack of proposed buildings and evacuation routes in previous studies.

Recorded Presentation from the vICCE (YouTube Link):


Deltares. 2019. Delft3D-FLOW: Simulation of multidimensional hydrodynamic flows and transport phenomena including sediments – User manual, The Netherlands.

DMC. 2012. Tsunami Hazard Map, Coastal Research and Design, Coast Conservation and Resource Management Department with the assistance from the Disaster Management Centre Sri Lanka.

Hettiatachi, S., Samarawickrama, S., and Wijerathne, N. 2016. Tsunami Hazard and Risk Assessment and the Planning of Mitigation Measures: Case Study City of Galle, Coastal Management: Changing coast, changing climate, changing minds, Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) Publishing.

Josiah, N.R., Laknath, D.P.C. and Araki, S.2020. Assessment of Tsunami Preparedness Measures in East Coast of Sri Lanka Based on 2004 Tsunami Event, Proceedings of 22nd Congress of International Association for Hydro Environment Engineering and Research and Asia Pacific Division, Sapporo, Japan.

Josiah, N.R, Laknath, D.P.C. and Araki, S. 2019. Simulation of Tsunami Inundation in East Coast of Sri Lanka, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts, Hanoi, Vietnam, pp.145-152.

Koshimura, S., Oie, T., Yanagisawa, H., and Imamura, F. 2009. Developing fragility functions for tsunami damage estimation using numerical model and post-tsunami data from Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Coastal Engineering Journal, 51(3), 243-273.

Laknath, D.P.C. and Sasaki, J. 2011. Assessment of the tsunami rehabilitated fishery harbors in Sri Lanka. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 64 (Proceedings of the 11th International Coastal Symposium), 1245 – 1249. Szczecin, Poland.

Levy, J. K., and Gopalakrishnan, C. 2005. Promoting Disaster-resilient Communities: The Great Sumatra–Andaman Earthquake of 26th December 2004 and the Resulting Indian Ocean Tsunami. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 21(4), 543–559.

Mörner, N.A., Laborel, J. and Dawson, S. 2008. Submarine "Sandstorms" and Tsunami Events in the Indian Ocean. Journal of Coastal Research, 24(6), 1608-1611.

Murata, S., Imamura, F., Katoh, K., Kawata, Y., Takahashi, S. and Takayama, T. 2016. Tsunami: To survive from tsunami, Advanced Series of Ocean Engineering, 46, 2nd Edition, World Scientific Publications.

Reeve, D., Chadwick, A. and Fleming, C.A.2012. Coastal Engineering - Processes, Theory and Design Practice, Spon Press.

Ruwanpura, P.R., Hettiarachchi, M., Vidanapathiran, M. and Perera, S.2009. “Management of Dead and Missing: Aftermath Tsunami in Galle.” Legal Medicine, vol. 11, pp. S86–88.

Sakthiparan, N. 2020. An assessment of building vulnerability to a tsunami in the Galle coastal area, Sri Lanka, Journal of Building Engineering, 27.

Sorensen, R. 1997. Basic Coastal Engineering, Springer Science & Business Media.

Sri Lanka Institute of Policy Studies, 2007. "Disaster management policy and practice in Sri Lanka: Sharing lessons among government, civil society and private sector," in "Research Studies: Environmental Economic Policy Series No.11"

Wickramaratne, S., Ruwanpura, J.Y. and Wirasinghe, S.C., 2013. "A review of preparedness planning for tsunamis in Sri Lanka," presented at the 9th Annual International Conference of the International Institute for Infrastructure Renewal and Reconstruction (IIIRR).

Wijetunge, J.J. 2006. Tsunami on 26th December 2004: Spatial distribution of tsunami height and the extent of inundation in Sri Lanka, Science of tsunami hazards, 24(3), 225-239.

UNDP. 2011. Risk Assessment and Management for Tsunami Hazard Case Study of the Port City of Galle, United Nations Development Programme Asia-Pacific Regional Centre, Bangkok, Thailand.

Authors retain copyright and grant the Proceedings right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this Proceedings.