Shan-Hwei Ou, Tai-Wen Hsu, Jian-Feng Lin, Jian-Wu Lai, Shih-Hsiang Lin, Chen-Chen Chang, Yuan-Jyh Lan


A laboratory measurement on the flow field, turbulence and wave energy of spilling breakers over artificial reefs is presented. Instantaneous velocity fields of propagating breaking waves on artificial reefs were measured using Particle Image Velocimeter (PIV) and Bubble Image Velocimeter (BIV). Variations of water surface elevation were observed by using Charge Coupled Device (CCD) cameras with horizontal posture. The experimental results showed that the initial bubble velocity in the aerated region is faster than phase speed with a factor of 1.26. The velocity profiles are identical to the shallow water theory. It is found that a low flow velocity exists due to an opposite but equal onshore and offshore velocity. Significant turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent Reynolds stress are produced by breaking waves in the front of aerated region, then move offshore and decay. The calculated total energy dissipation rate was compared to that based on a bore approximation.


DIP; PIV; BIV; Breaking wave

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.9753/icce.v32.waves.17