AbstractA hydraulic or water-jet breakwater is formed by- forcing water through a series of nozzles mounted on a pipe which is installed perpendicular to the direction of the incident waves. The jets create a surface current which results in breaking of the incident wave. Apparently, this effect is primarily responsible for attenuation of the incident wave. An earlier development, the pneumatic breakwater, operates on a similar principle with a horizontal surface current induced by rising air bubbles.
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