AbstractPhysical modelling is a technique which is commonly used in the design procedure of rubble-mound breakwaters. For reliable results it is necessary that the model tests accurately represent the prototype situation. In this paper, two significant improvements in modelling of breakwaters are presented. They are the generation of realistic sea states at the test site, and the simulation of the breakage of the armour units by using units which have mechanical properties properly scaled from the prototype units. These techniques have been used to study the recent breakwater failure at Riviere-au-Renard, Canada.
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