AbstractDevelopment of oil and gas fields offshore presents new problems in the design of the civil engineering works since in many cases little is known about prevailing conditions on the bed of the sea over the considerable lengths involved. Movement of pipelines after construction, is, therefore, not uncommon and may result in the failure of the line. Consequent losses can be considerable. Pipelines are also vulnerable to mechanical damage by anchors and by fishing activities, the latter giving rise to political problems where the pipelines are laid across existing fishing grounds. To give protection to oil and gas pipelines as well as to marine outfalls and cables a method of protection has been developed using the well known concept of rock filled wire mesh or gabions. To adapt this method to use in underwater works another well proven material, sand mastic asphalt, has been combined with the gabion mattresses to give the required qualities of strength, durability, flexibility together with sufficient weight to restrain movement in the pipeline.
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