AbstractA new method for the numerical creation of random single-layer systems of concrete armour units is illustrated. The armour layer pack is created by a FEMDEM solver that ensures mechanical equilibrium between all concrete units and rocks of the underlayer. The local and average packing density together with geometric constraints indicative of randomness and interlocking are assessed using analysis tools and shown to be in accordance with unit designer requirements. This solids modelling research is an essential pre-requisite to future simulation of the armour layer response to wave loading and more realistic modelling of wave run-up and overtopping on rubble-mound structures.
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