AbstractThe swell climate of the Black Sea has been determined using a long-term 31-year wave hindcast with the third-generation spectral wave model SWAN in combination with spectral partitioning. This technique enables decomposing wave spectra into individual wave systems representing wind seas or swells and computing integral wave parameters of each partition. Results are presented of the partition technique and of spatial and seasonal characteristics of wind sea and swell systems. In addition, the average amount of swell energy and the occurrence probability of dangerous crossing sea states are determined.
Akpinar, A., G.Ph. Van Vledder, M.Ä°. Kömurcu, and M. Özger, 2012. Evaluation of the numerical wave model (SWAN) for wave simulation in the Black Sea. Continental Shelf Research, 50-51, 80-99.
Akpınar, A., B. Bingölbali, and G.Ph. Van Vledder, 2016. Wind and wave characteristics in the Black Sea based on the SWAN model forced with the CFSR winds, Ocean Engineering, 126, 276-298.
Berkun, U., 2007. Wind and swell wave climate for the Southern part of the Black Sea. Master thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.
Booij, N., R. Ris, and L.H. Holthuijsen, 1999. A third-generation wave model for coastal regions: 1. Model description and validation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 7649-7666.
Devaliere, E., J. Hanson, and R. Luettich, 2007. Evaluation of wave model performance in a North Carolina Test Bed, Proceedings 10th International Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting Workshop, North Shore, HI.
Cavaleri, L., and P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, 1981. Wind wave predictions in shallow waters: Theory and applications. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 86, 961-973.
ECMWF, 2015. User guide to ECMWF forecast products. http://www.ecmwf.int.
Hanson, J. L., and O. M. Phillips, 2001. Automated analysis of ocean surface directional wave spectra. Journal of Atmospheric Oceanic Technology, 18, 277-293.
Hasselmann, K, et al., 1973: Measurements of wind-wave growth and swell decay during the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP), Deutch. Hydrogr. Z. Suppl. A8, 12, 95 pp.Hasselmann, S., K. Hasselmann, J.H.
Allender, and T.P. Barnett, 1985. Computations and parameterizations of the nonlinear energy transfer in a gravity wave spectrum. Part II: Parameterizations of the nonlinear transfer for application in wave models. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 15, 1378-1391.
Komen, G., S. Hasselmann, and K. Hasselmann, 1984. On the existence of a fully developed wind-sea spectrum. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 14, 1271-1285.
Komen, G.J., L. Cavaleri, M. Donelan, K. Hasselmann, S. Hasselmann, and P.A.E.M. Janssen, 1994. Dynamics and modelling of ocean waves. Cambridge University Press. 554.
Portilla, J., F.J. Ocampo-Torres, and J. Monbaliu, 2009. Spectral partitioning and identification of wind sea and swell. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. 26, 107-122.
Portilla, J., L. Cavaleri, and G.Ph. Van Vledder, 2015. Wave spectra partitioning and long term statistical distribution. Ocean Modelling, virtual issue, 1-13.
Rogers, W.E., P.A. Hwang, and D.W. Wang, 2003. Investigation of wave growth and decay in the SWAN model: three regional-scale applications, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 33, 366-389.
Snyder, R.L., F.W. Dobson, J.A. Elliott, and R.B. Long, 1981. Array measurement of atmospheric pressure fluctuations above surface gravity waves. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 102, 1-59.
SWAN Team. 2016. SWAN user manual. SWAN Cycle III version 41.10, Delft University of Technology, p. 123.
Van Vledder, G.Ph., and L.H. Holthuijsen, 1993. The directional response of wind waves to turning wind. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23, 177-192.
Van Vledder, G.Ph, and A. Akpinar, 2015. Wave model predictions Black Sea: Sensitivity to wind fields. Applied Ocean Research, 53, 161-178.
Wavewatch III manual, 2009. User manual and system documentation of WAVEWATCH III TM version 3.14, Section on spectral partitioning.
Yilmaz, N. 2007. Spectral characteristics of wind waves in the Eastern Black Sea. Ph.D. thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.
Young. I.R., and G.Ph. van Vledder, 1993. The central role on non-linear four-wave interactions in wave evolution. Proc. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., A, 342, 505-524.