AbstractCoastal process understanding is based on observations of physical processes in the field and laboratory from which theories are developed. Theories may be expressed mathematically and coded into numerical models. Compared with the cost of field data acquisition and laboratory experiments, the cost of numerical modelling is often perceived to be low. Therefore, there is a tendency to undertake coastal investigation and design using numerical modelling methods alone. However, there is still a need for physical modelling in coastal engineering.
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