AbstractThe armor layer of a mound breakwaters is usually designed with a formula derived from physical tests in non-breaking wave conditions; however, most rubble mound breakwaters are placed in the wave breaking zone where the highest waves break before reaching the structure. The hydraulic stability formulas developed for rock-armored breakwaters in non-breaking conditions are not completely valid to characterize the hydraulic stability of these structures under depth-limited wave attack. In this study, five series of 2D physical tests were carried out on a bottom slope m=1/50 to analyze the hydraulic stability of double-layer rock armored breakwaters in depth-limited breaking wave conditions. Measurements taken by 12 wave gauges placed along the wave flume were compared with estimations of Hm0, H2% and H1/10 obtained from numerical model SwanOne. The significant wave height, Hm0, estimated or measured at a distance 3hs from the toe of the structure was the best characteristic wave to relate armor damage with stability number. The six-power relationship between dimensionless armor damage and stability number, found in this study, explained more than 94% of the variance in the damage observations. This relationship is valid for conventional non-overtopping double-layer rock-armored breakwaters on bottom slope m=1/50 and depth-limited breaking wave conditions.
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