AbstractPast tsunami events have caused extreme damage in coastal regions. Examples are the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004 and the Tohuku Tsunami in 2011. These extreme natural disasters brought into light the devastating nature which tsunami-induced inundation might inflict when propagating on-land. As a result of eye-witness reports and extensive media coverage, a wealth of evidence showing multi-phase fluid motion entraining a solid phase consisting of entrained debris, ranging from sediment grains to large vessels became available. In this context, debris impacts have been linked to major infrastructural damage (Yeh et al. 2012). This observation resulted in increased research emphasis on tsunami-driven debris impact. It also initiated the inclusion of first debris impact force equations in existing building codes such as FEMA (P-646 2012) and ASCE (Standard 7-16 Chapter 6). There are however still a lot of uncertainties on factors influencing tsunami-driven debris impact. Besides the random, probabilistic nature of debris entrainment, advection by the entraining flow and the uncertainty related to impact points, no guidance exists as to how multiple impacts of debris can be accounted for. In addition, little focus was directed to impact forces on non-rigid structures which investigated here for the first time.
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