AbstractIn the past decades, there are numerous reports on the accidents caused by extremely large waves. A large number of papers have contributed to the study on the physical properties and the generation mechanisms of such large waves. However, most of the research has been carried out without presence of currents. In the real ocean, the waves most likely coexist with currents. In many circumstances, owing to wind force and oceanic circulation, the currents are commonly not uniform and vary with depth, which plays an important role in the evolution of gravity waves (Swan et al., 2001). Wave kinematics is a key factor in designing structures. However, experimental studies of the influence of depth-varying currents on extreme waves are mainly considered for the changing of spatial and temporal geometric characteristics (Yao and Wu, 2006). In the present study, the kinematics of extreme waves on opposing depth-varying currents will be investigated using the PIV technology.
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