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How to Cite

Kaida, H., Kihara, N., & Takabatake, D. (2018). IMPACT FORCE OF FLOOD-BORNE VEHICLES. Coastal Engineering Proceedings, 1(36), structures.6.


Tsunami, hurricane storm surge, and waves generate debris such as shipping containers, wood logs, and vehicles. Impact forces exerted on structures in the inundation zone by such debris might result in severe structural damage of structures. Thus, reliable prediction of debris impact force is essential for the safe design and risk assessment of structures in the inundation zone. In this study, we carried out full-scale air-borne and flood-borne vehicle impact experiments. The experimental results enable characterization of the vehicle impact and prove the applicability of a theoretical equation (Haehnel and Daly, (2004)) in which the impact force of debris is estimated by using the impact velocity, axial stiffness, and mass of the debris. In addition, by analyzing NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration)'s experimental data, a list of axial stiffness for various types of vehicles was constructed, which is important in predicting the flood-borne vehicle impact force.


Haehnel , R. B., and Daly, S. F. (2004): Maximum Impact Force of Woody Debris on Floodplain Structures, J.Hydraulic.Eng., 130(2), pp.113-120.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration:, Accessed 27 July 2017.

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