AbstractLake Erie has the fourth largest surface area, shallowest water depth and smallest volume among the five Great Lakes in North America (NOAA). The dominant wind direction over Lake Erie's is southwest-northeast, along the lake's longitudinal axis. The atmospheric and water level data of the lake demonstrate that high wind and moving pressure systems can result in high storm surge of up to 3 m on the eastern end of the lake and significant drop in the water level at the western end of the lake Due to its shallow depth, such a water level gradient can trigger unique post-storm free water-level fluctuations or seiches in Lake Erie (Farhadzadeh, 2017). The morphodynamic implications of such low frequency oscillations are yet to be studied for the lake's shorelines. Most of studies on the contributions of long waves to beach morphology changes focused on low frequency harmonics induced by short waves, e.g. infragravity waves, edge waves, etc., oscillations with periods of up to a few minutes. Wright and Short (1984) discussed the differences in hydrodynamic processes and relative contributions of various mechanisms to morphological changes of beaches of different states, i.e., reflective, dissipative or intermediate. They concluded that for reflective beaches, incident waves and subharmonic edge waves are dominant while for dissipative beaches currents associated with infragravity standing waves are dominant in nearshore areas. Russell (1993) stated that as low frequency wave energy increases toward a shoreline, the offshore-directed transport at low frequency can become more pronounced.
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