AbstractCFD simulations of breaking waves with RANS models over the past 20 years have shown a marked tendency to severely over-predict turbulence levels, both outside and within the surf zone. The reason is most likely due to the inherent instability of turbulence closure models, as originally diagnosed by Mayer & Madsen (2000). While they proposed an ad-hoc fix, a fundamentally sound solution to this wide-spread problem has, to date, eluded the coastal and ocean engineering modeling community.
Larsen, B.E. & Fuhrman, D.R. (2018) On the over-production of turbulence beneath surface waves in RANS models. J. Fluid Mech. (in revision).
Mayer, S. & Madsen, P.A. (2000). Simulation of breaking waves in the surf zone using a Navier-Stokes solver. In: Proc. 25th ICCE. Sydney, Australia, pp. 928-941.