AbstractThe sole purpose of this paper is to present to the public more than twenty years' experience acquired in designing for, and eventually combating, the unusual forces of nature acting on marine structures in exposed waters. The structural design will naturally be determined by the use the project is called upon to serve and the standards of the designer. This particular phase of the overall picture, with the aid of available meteorological and oceanographical data for a specific area offers no particular difficulty in structural design. The subject matter presented herein refers to observations made among the various pier and oil well foundations constructed in the Elwood Field, California, during the interval between 1929 and 1935, and major maintenance problems to date. Where protective measures made at the time of installation are explained, they refer to our own specific works, while the general observations in the field are confined to no one particular structure or type of design.
Authors retain copyright and grant the Proceedings right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this Proceedings.