How to Cite

SUBMERGED GROYNES FOR BEACH STABILISATION. (2020). Coastal Engineering Proceedings, 36v, structures.1.


Typically, rubble mound groynes are constructed by end tipping from trucks for which the roadway level must be above high tide. Some adverse effects of such surface piercing groynes include the generation of rips along their trunks (Fleming 1990; Scott et al., 2016), which can transport sand off the beach and out of the groyne compartment. Further, rubble mound groynes have large footprints that may smother benthic habitat. A submerged groyne may obviate such potential adverse impacts. Submerged groynes are used in England to stabilise shingle beaches (Simm et al., 1996). The groyne extends offshore but underwater, protruding far enough above the seabed to arrest alongshore transport of littoral drift. However, scale modelling (Jensen 1997) showed that groynes remaining below the water surface allow for the expansion of rip currents and, hence, a reduction in their velocity and their capacity to transport littoral drift offshore and beyond the groyne compartment. Further, submerged groynes can comprise sheet piling, which may be timber (as used in UK), fibre-reinforced plastic, steel or concrete, which present a negligible footprint, having a minimal impact on benthic habitat.

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Fleming (1990): Guide on the Use of Groynes in Coastal Engineering, CIRIA Report No 119, 116pp.

Jensen, T. (1997). Jumeirah Coastal Zone Management Plan 3D Physical Modelling. Report prepared by Danish Hydraulic Institute for Mouchel Middle East Ltd.

Nielsen, Turner, Miller, Leyden and Gordon (2000): Experiences with physical basin modelling using mobile sediments, Proc. 27th ICCE, ASCE, Sydney, 14pp

Scott, Austin, Masselink and Russell (2016): Dynamics of rip currents associated with groynes — field measurements, modelling and implications for beach safety, Coastal Engineering 107, 53–69.

Simm, Brampton, Beech and Brooke (1996): Beach Management Manual, CIRIA Report 153, 448pp.

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