ICCE 2022

How to Cite

Maggi, B., Baxter, C., & Grilli, A. (2023). FRAGILITY ANALYSIS OF DUNES REINFORCED WITH GEOSYNTHETIC SAND CONTAINERS. Coastal Engineering Proceedings, (37), structures.58.


Encroachment of infrastructure on the natural beach system constrains dune volumes and necessitates construction of structural and nonstructural mitigation measures to improve coastal resilience. Nature-based solutions, such as dunes reinforced with geosynthetic sand containers (GSCs), are increasingly being used to stabilize coastlines and protect communities from smaller storm events (e.g. 50-year storms) while at the same time providing flexibility in design considering the uncertainty regarding rates of sea level rise and the increasing destructive power of storm events. Using risk-based hazard assessments, such as fragility curves, it is possible to quantify the resiliency of reinforced coastal systems to address these dynamic conditions. A fragility curve represents the conditional probability of failure of a coastal structure (e.g. natural dune, reinforced dune, seawall, etc.) as a function of a certain stress acting on the structure (typically water level, wave height/period; Gruhn et al. 2012). The main advantage of a fragility curve, compared to a damage function that quantifies a deterministic degree of damage directly to a stress, is that it can account for uncertainties in both the structural resistance (i.e. capacity) and the environmental stress (i.e. demand) of the system. The objective of this research is to present a fragility analysis of a U.S. Federally funded GSC-reinforced dune in Montauk, NY. This dune was constructed in 2016 and experienced significant erosion of the protective berm and sand covering the GSCs during a 1-year storm event that same year.


Gruhn, Salecker, Fröhle, Schüttrumpf, and Thorenz (2012): Flood Protection Dunes – An Approach for Reliability Assessment by Means of Fragility Curves as Part of a Risk and Damage Analysis, Proceedings of 33rd International Conference on Coastal Engineering.

Oumeraci, Hinz, Bleck, and Kortenhaus (2003): Sand-filled Geotextile Containers for Shore Protection. Coastal Structures 2003, 1-15.

USACE (2007): Shore Protection Assessment – How Beach Nourishment Projects Work. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, Engineer Research and Development Center.

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Copyright (c) 2023 Brian Maggi, Christopher Baxter, Annette Grilli