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How to Cite

Esteban, M., Takagi, H., Fatma, D., Mikami, T., Valenzuela, P., Avelino, E., Crichton, R., Jamero, L., Chadwick, C., & Onuki, M. (2018). PORT ADAPTATION TO SEA LEVEL RISE: LESSONS FROM PRESENT EXAMPLES OF LAND SUBSIDENCE. Coastal Engineering Proceedings, 1(36), risk.59. https://doi.org/10.9753/icce.v36.risk.59


According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 5th Assessment Report, or IPCC 5AR (2013), sea level is rise (SLR) could be in the order of 26 to 98 cm by 2100. However, more onerous predictions, such as those set forth in recent probabilistic process-based models by Kopp et al. (2017), or Bars et al., (2017), indicate that SLR could be almost in the order of almost 3m by the end of the 21st century. As a result of sea level rise a number of authors have stated that many ports and coastal communities would be forced to relocate or attempt expensive adaptation countermeasures (Yamamoto and Esteban, 2016). However, most of the forecasted problems and their knock-on consequences on coastal communities remain hypothetical, despite a number of past examples of relative sea level rise due to earthquake induced subsidence or groundwater extraction (Jamero et al, 2016, 2017, Takagi et al., 2016, Esteban et al., 2017). In order to better understand the consequences of future sea level rise the authors have analysed the effects of two instances land subsidence that have taken place in the 20th and early 21st century, and the adaptation measures that ports and other low-lying areas have adopted in the northern Japanese region of Tohoku following the 2011 Earthquake Tsunami, and Jakarta in Indonesia (where groundwater extraction has been inducing rates of subsidence of 10-20cm per year in several parts of the city, Takagi et al, 2017). To date, the authors are not aware of any other work that has systematically attempted to learn from real examples of land subsidence as a proxy to study the effects of SLR on ports, despite a number of calls for more research to be done on the subject (Becker et al., 2013).


Bars, D. L., Drijfhout, S. and Vries, H. (2018) A high-end sea level rise probabilistic projection including rapid Antarctic ice sheet mass loss. Environmental Research Letters, 12, 044013.

Becker et al. (2013) "A note on climate change adaptation for seaports: A challenge for global ports, a challenge for global society†, Journal of Climatic Change 120, 683-695

Esteban, Onuki, Ikeda, Akiyama, T. (2015) "Reconstruction Following the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami: Case Study of Otsuchi Town in Iwate Prefecture, Japan† in Handbook of Coastal Disaster Mitigation for Engineers and Planners. Esteban, M., Takagi, H. and Shibayama, T. (eds.). Butterworth- Heinemann (Elsevier), Oxford, UK

Esteban, M., Takagi, H., Mikami, T., Aprilia, A., Fujii, D., Kurobe, S. and Utama, N. A. (2017) "Awareness of coastal Floods in Impoverished Subsiding Coastal Communities in Jakarta: Tsunamis, Typhoon Storm Surges and Dyke-Induced Tsunamis†, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 23, 70-79

Jamero, L., Esteban., M. and Onuki, M. (2016) "Potential In-Situ Adaptation Strategies for Climate-Related Sea- Level Rise: Insights from a Small Island in The Philippines Experiencing Earthquake-Induced Land Subsidence†, J-SustaiN 4 (2) pp 44-53.

Jamero, L., Onuki, M. and Esteban, M., Billones-Sensano, X. K., Tan, N., Nellas, A., Takagi, H., Thao, N. D. and Valenzuela, V. P. (2017) "Small island communities in the Philippines prefer local measures to relocation in response to sea-level rise†, Nature Climate Change 7, 581-586

, L., Onuki, M., Esteban, M. and Tan, N. (2018) "Community-based adaptation in low-lying islands in the Philippines: Challenges and lessons learned†, Regional Environmental Change (accepted)

Kopp, R. E., DeConto, R. M., Bader, D. A., Hay, C. C., Horton, R. M., Kulp, S., Oppenheimer, M., Pollard, D. and Strauss, B. H. (2017) Evolving Understanding of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Physics and Ambiguity in Probabilistic Sea- Level Projections. Earth's Future, 5, 1217-1233

Takagi, Fujii, Esteban, Yi (2017) "Effectiveness and Limitation of Coastal Dykes in Jakarta: the Need for Prioritising Actions against Land Subsidence†. Sustainability 9, 619

Takagi, H., Fujii, D., Mikami, T. and Esteban, M. (2016) "Mangrove Forest against Dyke-break induced Tsunami in Rapidly Subsiding Coasts†, Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 16, 1629-1638.

Vermeer and Rahmstorf (2009) Global sea level linked to global temperature. PNAS;106:21527-21532

Yamamoto, L. and Esteban, M. (2016) "Migration as an Adaptation Strategy for Atoll Island States†. Journal of International Migration 55 (2) pp. 144-158

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