ICCE 2022

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STABILITY OF RUBBLE MOUND STRUCTURES UNDER OBLIQUE WAVE ATTACK. (2023). Coastal Engineering Proceedings, 37, structures.4.


Stability formulae for armour layers of rubble mound breakwaters are generally developed for perpendicular wave attack and do not include effects of oblique waves. Waves usually attack breakwater obliquely as the sea wave is three dimensional. Several studies have been performed to investigate the effect of wave angle (beta) on the armor stability. Galland (1994), Yu et al. (2002), Wolters and Van Gent (2010) and van Gent (2014) performed laboratory experiments to consider effects of oblique waves on the stability of armour layers. They performed tests with long-crested and/or short-crested waves on rock and concrete armours. The aim of this study is to find an appropriate and compatible reduction factor for EBV stability formulae.


Etemad-Shahidi, A., Bali, M., Van Gent, M.R.A., 2020. On the stability of rubble mound structures. Coast. Eng. 158, 103655.

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Van Gent, M.R.A., Smale, A., Kuiper, C., 2003. Stability of rock slopes with shallow foreshores. Proc. Coastal Structures Conference 2003, Portland, USA.

Van Gent, M.R.A., 2014. Oblique wave attack on rubble mound breakwaters. Coast. Eng 88, 43–54.

Wolters, G., van Gent, M.R.A., 2010. Oblique wave attack on cube and rock armoured rubble mound breakwaters. Proc. ICCE 2010, Shanghai

Yu, Y.-X., Liu, S.-X., Zhu, C.-H., 2002. Stability of armour units on rubble mound breakwater under multi-directional waves. Coast. Eng. J. 44, 179–201.

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Copyright (c) 2023 Meysam Bali, Amir Etemad-Shahidi, Marcel R.A. van Gent